Adding Omega-3s is no simple task
As the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids reach the awareness of consumers eager to improve the functions of their body - from the cardiovascular system to the brain - food makers are scurrying to enrich and fortify products with omega-3s and get them to market. But one major obstacle tempers progress - flavour.
Great sources for omega-3s are fish oils, algal oils and linseed oil. Each can be highly susceptible to oxidation, however. That deteriorates flavour, increases the risk of rancidity and reduces shelf life.
"Many food companies still don't believe that fish oils can be put in food and that it can still taste good, but there are methods," said Ian Newton of Ceres Consulting in Canada.
Proper handling techniques and special fortification can remedy these hurdles in many cases, and research is moving forward to find more flavourful fortification techniques.
One problem in omega-3 fortification is that the compounds which serve as efficient antioxidants can, conversely, increase oxidation in complex food systems. In a case study of omega-3 fatty acids in mayonnaise, researchers with the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research found that the dressing's low pH, combined with high iron content - caused by egg yolks in mayonnaise - are main factors that cause lipid oxidation. They suggested that flavour could perhaps be improved with lower iron levels. Studies by the same team on the flavour quality of milk that had been fortified showed that flavour improved dramatically when rapeseed oil was used as the source of omega-3s.
Copper can be as big a problem as iron in causing oxidation. Newton described a case of omega-3 enriched margarine makers who experienced an increase in the fishy flavour of their product while at the same time its shelf life decreased.
"Finally, they realised it started when they changed sea salt suppliers. The new sea salt ... contained just a small level of copper that triggered a large amount of oxidation," he said.
Foods that contain any levels of peroxide will also have oxidation problems, said the researchers.
Retaining the flavour and shelf life of omega-3 fortified foods can be a simple matter of carefully handling products and thoughtful placement of oils in the ingredient stream, said Brian Langdon of Omega Protein Inc.
Adding omega-3s as close to the end of the ingredient stream as possible is helpful, he reported, with the best time to add being before the final mixing of the product.
According to the panellists, some products that are emerging as the best for omega-3 fortification include frozen food entrees, soups, refrigerated foods, salad dressings, yoghurts, spreads, juices, egg products and cheeses, which are especially helpful in providing omega-3s due to their attraction to a wide audience, ranging from children to the elderly.
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